American constitution is in written form originally consisted of preamble and seven articles. It is an enacted constitution given by the convention in Philadelphia and officially adopted on March 04, 1789.
Some important points of USA constitution are given below:
Sovereignty of the People: The preamble laid emphasis on the sovereignty of the people. It starts with the words “We the people of the United States” which clearly indicates the sovereignty of the people.
Supremacy of Constitutional Law: It is mentioned in the constitution that “This Constitution and the laws of the Unites States which shall be made in pursuance there of ……. shall be the Supreme Law of the Land”.
Conventions: Conventions are the basic feature of the constitution of USA and played an important role in the development of the constitution. For example the growth of the cab nit of American President is the result of a convention.
Republican: According to the constitution there is a Republican form of government in every state. The head of the state will be an elected one.
Rigid: It requires a special procedure to amend it. Every amendment, which can be moved in two different ways, must be ratified by the three-fourths of the states.
Federal form of Government: A constitutional division of powers has been made between the center and the federating units. The constitution clearly describes the powers of the center and leaves the residue of powers to be exercised by the federating states.
Presidential: The constitution vests all the executive powers to the president. He is elected by the people for the term of four years and not responsible for his acts and policies to the legislature.
Bicameral Legislature: “House of Representatives” is the lower house and representation is on the basis of population. “Senate” is the upper house and each state has equal representation, two Senators from each state.
Separation of Powers: The American constitution separates as much as possible the three branches of the government: the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. All three branches of the government have been kept separate from each other. There is no interference in each department.
Checks and Balance: The president can veto a bill passed by the congress. Likewise, the congress can impeach the president. Certain appointments and treaties made by the president are required to be ratified by the Senate. The judiciary checks the powers of the legislative and executive organs.
Judicial Review: The federal judiciary acts as the guardian of the constitution. It can declare an Act or action of the executive null and void if such an Act or action is inconsistent with the provisions of the constitution.
Bills of Rights: The fundamental rights of the people have been guaranteed in the constitution. The first ten amendments were made to incorporate the fundamental rights.
Dual Citizenship: An American is a citizen of the USA and also a citizen of the State he lives in.
Due Process of Law: The federal government or the state government is forbidden to deprive anyone of life, liberty and property without the due process of law.
Secular: It is stated that congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise of religion.